Prostate Pathologies: Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

Prostate Pathologies: Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

Prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system, responsible for producing fluid that is part of semen. Unfortunately, prostate pathologies are fairly common among men, especially aged 45 or more. It is estimated that prostate cancer is the second most commonly occurring cancer in men and the fourth most common cancer overall.

Prostate cancer is not the only pathology of this male organ. Men may suffer from prostate inflammation (prostatitis), or non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate. In all cases of prostate malfunction, it is crucial to choose adequate treatment, as well as to take preventive measures, such as regular medical check-ups. What are the symptoms of prostate pathologies and how to diagnose and treat them?

What Symptoms Do Prostate Pathologies Give?

Depending on the prostate malfunction severity, its symptoms differ in their character and intensity. Signs of prostatitis, a fairly common prostate infection include pain and difficulty passing urine, pain in the bladder, testicles and penis, as well as pain during ejaculation.
A man suffering from prostatitis may also have difficulty emptying the bladder completely.

Prostate cancer involves similar symptoms to prostatitis. However, they may be more intense and persistent. Other signs that may indicate prostate cancer include blood in the urine and/or semen, persistent erectile dysfunction as well as general weakness and fatigue. It is vital to know that the symptoms of prostate cancer may be confused with prostatitis. Regular screening and immediate reaction to unexpected symptoms is therefore crucial for prostate cancer prevention.

How To Diagnose Prostate Pathologies?

The most reliable way to diagnose prostate pathologies is to perform regular medical check-ups. During the examination, the specialist - a usually urologist - will examine the following parametres:

  • the size and texture of the prostate
  • any hard areas or lumps beyond the prostate
  • a potential pain caused by touching or pressing on the prostate

Apart from physical examination, blood tests are a highly effective diagnostic method. In the case of potential prostate pathologies, the level of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is measured. Small quantities of PSA are normally found in the blood of men with a healthy prostate, however, its increased values may indicate a prostate pathology. In general, the higher a man’s PSA level is, the more likely it is that he has prostate cancer. Other diagnostic tools used to detect a potential prostate malfunction involve urodynamic testing, cystoscopy, or biopsy. 

Apart from laboratory screening, it is also useful to check the PSA level by taking self-tests at home. Such tests may be an excellent and trustworthy starting point for further diagnostic processes. They are easy to use and effective - for example, BerkeleyHealth Prostate PSA Rapid Test takes only 5 minutes and is over 92% accurate.

Prostate Pathologies Treatment Options

Modern medicine offers a variety of prostate pathology treatment opportunities. Depending on the cause and variety of the disease, a specialist will adjust the most effective and safe therapeutic solutions. 

Prostate pathology treatment may involve surgical and non-surgical methods:

  • Surgical treatment - partial or full removal of the prostate - introduced most often in the case of prostate cancer;
  • Non-surgical treatment - radiation therapy, pharmacological treatment or hormone therapy - the intake of hormones or medication usually accompanies radiation therapy;
  • Active surveillance (also called “watchful waiting”) - involves observing the symptoms, for example in the case of prostate enlargement and consulting the specialist regularly.

In each therapy type, it is crucial to consult a specialist on a regular basis and follow the medical guidelines strictly. 

How to Prevent Prostate Pathologies?


Prevention is the key factor to decrease the risk of prostate cancer and other diseases, especially in men aged 45 or more. Apart from regular screening, lifestyle changes may significantly decrease the risk of prostate pathologies, including cancer. 

What measures are advisable to take in order to prevent prostate malfunction? 

  • Keeping a well-balanced diet. Specialists recommend limiting fat intake and eating a lot of fish, soybeans and dairy products.
  • Perform PSA tests regularly -
  • Follow your family’s medical history. If any cases of prostate pathologies have occurred in your family, inform your doctor about it and remember about preventive screening.

Remember that prevention is key to limiting the risk of prostate pathology development, and if they are detected - the chances of successful treatment significantly increase.